OBLIGATION AND PRESENT SITUATION


Obligation of the States Parties of the Mine Ban Treaty


(Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction)

-Never use APMs, nor "develop, produce, acquire, stockpile, retain or transfer" them.

-Destroy mines in their stockpiles within four years of the Treaty becoming binding.

-Clear mines in their territory or support efforts to clear mines in mined countries, within 10 years.

-In mine-affected countries conduct mine awareness and ensure that mine victims are cared  for, rehabilitated and reintegrated into their communities.

-Offer assistance to other State Parties, for example in providing for survivors or in clearance programs.

-Adopt implementation measures (such as national legislation) in order to ensure that the terms of the Treaty are upheld in their territory.

In compliance with the second item, the Japanese Government completed destruction of its one million stockpiled APM on 8 February 2003, excluding those for training and research.

Present situation

The use of APMs around the globe had dropped drastically from the mid-1990s. It is one of the greatest achievements of the Mine Ban Treaty and the Mine Ban Campaign. APMs have been used by fewer countries and in lesser numbers than seen from the 1960s through the early 1990s, when global landmines crisis was created.

Since 1999, there have been three instances in which government forces have made very extensive use of APMs. India and Pakistan mined their border during a period of tension from December 2001 to mid-2002, laying perhaps 2 million or more mines. Russian forces used perhaps hundreds of thousands of hand-emplaced and scatterable mines in Chechnya in 1999 and 2000. Ethiopia and Eritrea laid hundreds of thousands of APM during their border war from 1998 to mid-2000.